Topic: Aging

Ah, the Memories

Friday, September 17th, 2010 by American Senior Fitness Association   View This Issue of Experience!

Enjoy some memorable mental stimulation by checking out SFA’s September 17 entries on “In the News” (which accompanies this newsletter). The two entries of note concern memory fitness. One is a short report on an interesting scientific study, and the other is just for fun as singer-songwriter Tom Rush performs a tune sure to spark your humor neurons!



Starring YOUR Senior Fitness Clients

Wednesday, August 18th, 2010 by American Senior Fitness Association   View This Issue of Experience!

SFA recently received an exciting message from Alexis Gutter, editorial assistant at AARP The Magazine:

"We have an ongoing section called ‘Imagine If’ that features seniors fulfilling dreams. This could be anything from jumping out of a plane to taking karate classes to white water rafting."

Ms. Gutter asked us to spread the word among our membership to encourage people to tell the magazine what they’re up to. Interested seniors who are fulfilling long-time dreams and would like to be photographed in the magazine while doing so should let the editors know at



Overcoming Lack of Sleep

Wednesday, August 18th, 2010 by American Senior Fitness Association   View This Issue of Experience!

SFA author Jim Evans is a 42-year veteran of the health and fitness industry and an internationally recognized senior fitness consultant. Today Jim offers some healthy advice for getting sufficient, good quality sleep.

DEAR JIM: For the past several years I’ve been tossing and turning all night and can’t seem to get a good night’s sleep. Worse, when I look in the mirror I can’t believe how old I look. I realize that at 74 I’m not a "spring chicken" anymore, but my age seems to be accelerating. I eat a well balanced diet and try to stay physically active, but I just can’t sleep as soundly as I used to and I’m tired all the time. Any suggestions? SLEEPY IN SANTA CRUZ

DEAR SLEEPY: For starters I would recommend a complete physical examination to see if there are any underlying medical issues that might be causing your sleeplessness. A lack of sleep can have numerous undesirable side effects.

Research indicates that the consistent lack of a good night’s sleep can negatively impact your ability to handle stress, compromise your health, increase motor and neurological deterioration, hasten the aging process, and ultimately shorten your life. You might have been able to tolerate less sleep when you were younger without any immediately noticeable side effects but not so when you are older.

"We’re beginning to identify some of the underlying mechanisms that may help explain why organisms age," said Natraj Krishnan (, a research associate in the Oregon State University Department of Zoology. He noted that "… young individuals may be able to handle certain stresses, but the same insults at an older age cause genetic damage and appear to lead to health problems and earlier death. And it’s linked to biological clocks."

If your physical doesn’t turn up anything unusual, try some of the traditional methods of improving your sleep such as curtailing physical activity before you go to bed, avoiding caffeine for several hours before bedtime, and not going to bed hungry (but don’t eat too much late at night either). And, no, a warm glass of milk before you go to bed may not help you sleep despite what your grandmother used to tell you, but if you think it does, go for it. Most of us already know that drinking too much fluid before bedtime is usually asking for trouble, so go easy on beverages of any kind.

Your room temperature can make a big difference in how you sleep, too, so turn off the heat at night (or at least turn it down if you live in a colder climate) and snuggle under the covers. You might even try reading in bed to help you wind down from the day’s activities.

There are also other ways to improve your sleep habits, but definitely start with the physical check-up to rule out any medical issues. The important thing is to get to the source of the problem so that you can start looking — and feeling — more refreshed in the morning.


Solutions in the Senior Living Industry

Wednesday, August 18th, 2010 by American Senior Fitness Association   View This Issue of Experience!

SFA National Advisory Board member Jan Montague is doing something constructive about concerns related to the retirement living industry. Regular readers will recall Jan’s high-energy Experience! series on promoting whole-person wellness among older adults. Indeed, she has long been a major voice in shaping the national dialogue on how to improve senior citizens’ quality of life. Below are press release excerpts detailing Jan’s involvement and that of her colleagues in a groundbreaking new initiative:

CINCINNATI — Life Enriching Communities, Inc. (LEC) has announced the launch of a new business venture, Whole Person Wellness Solutions, Inc. (WPWS). WPWS will provide consulting, development, and management services to the senior living and older adult services industries nationwide.

During the past decade, LEC has become a recognized leader of whole-person wellness in the senior living industry. By incorporating both an internal and external approach, LEC has provided the necessary leadership and best practice models to advance a whole-person wellness approach to optimal aging.

"This is a great opportunity to further advance whole-person wellness across the landscape of senior living," says Scott McQuinn, LEC president and CEO. "Older adults, now and in the future, expect a lifestyle with meaning and purpose." In addition to consulting services, WPWS will offer leadership training, professional education programs, product development, and research opportunities for the advancement of whole-person wellness.

Jan Montague, a national expert in the whole-person wellness movement, has joined the LEC team to assist with the design, development, and implementation of Whole Person Wellness Solutions, Inc. In her previous business Jan consulted with hundreds of senior living and senior service organizations, hospitals, health clubs, fitness equipment companies, physical therapy groups, architectural firms, and universities in developing wellness environments, cultures, and programs that truly serve the whole person.

"It seems as if everyone I have met at Life Enriching Communities is interested in the advancement of whole-person wellness for all the right reasons," says Ms. Montague. "Because this openness and desire for optimum health is already in place, I am pleased and excited to join the LEC team. It’s an outstanding opportunity to work closely with a group of people motivated to develop optimum whole-person wellness."

Ms. Montague, who is the president of WPWS, received the Professional Achievement Award from Northern Kentucky University in 1997. She received the Cottrell Distinguished Alumni Award from the Scripps Gerontology Center, Miami University, Oxford, Ohio in 2007. Jan serves on several national and international advisory boards and has authored numerous articles for professional journals focusing on whole-person wellness and optimal aging.

Joining Ms. Montague in the development of WPWS is Monica Smith, the executive director of Twin Lakes. Ms. Smith began her career with LEC as the director of wellness for Twin Towers and Twin Lakes nearly ten years ago. She has enjoyed this role and has played a huge part in creating a culture of whole-person wellness for LEC.

Ms. Smith is very passionate about developing cultures based in whole-person wellness. She has worked with Jan Montague for several years in a variety of capacities. Ms. Smith says, "The philosophy of whole-person wellness touches me personally. I am thrilled to have this opportunity. I am excited and looking forward to working with Jan in the development of Whole Person Wellness Solutions, Inc."

Whole Person Wellness Solutions, Inc. is located at 3051 Arborcreek Lane, Cincinnati, Ohio 45242. For information, email

Life Enriching Communities, Inc. includes the senior living communities of Twin Towers and Twin Lakes and the LEC Foundation. The communities offer accommodations and services for independent lifestyles, assisted living, and short/long term nursing services. LEC, affiliated with the West Ohio Conference of the Methodist Church, welcomes people of all faiths.


Senior Living Models Revisited

Wednesday, August 4th, 2010 by American Senior Fitness Association   View This Issue of Experience!

Following is a very interesting article by Kay Van Norman, longtime friend of the American Senior Fitness Association (SFA). While extolling the senior living industry’s movement to promote whole-person wellness among older adult residents, she asks some hard questions about today’s "conventional wisdom" on the subject.

We invite you to read Van Norman’s insightful — and controversial — essay "Creating Purpose-Driven Communities" and weigh in with your ideas and comments. You may do so here or on our Facebook page.

Kay Van Norman, MS, is a member of the National Advisory Board of the American Senior Fitness Association and is an internationally known author, speaker and leader in the field of exercise and wellness programming for adults over 50. In addition to numerous journal articles and book chapters, she authored Exercise Programming for Older Adults (1995) and its revision Exercise and Wellness for Older Adults (2010), which includes a full chapter on psychosocial aspects of health behaviors, a chapter on programming for senior living environments, and a section on strength and power training. She directed the Keiser Institute on Aging from 2000 to 2003, and currently serves on the boards of the National Council on Aging’s Health Promotion Institute and the International Council on Active Aging. Van Norman, whose business is named Brilliant Aging, can be reached at

This article was originally published in the Journal on Active Aging(R) (September/October 2009), and appears here with the permission of the International Council on Active Aging(R), All rights reserved.


Creating Purpose-Driven Communities

Wednesday, August 4th, 2010 by American Senior Fitness Association   View This Issue of Experience!

The opinions expressed in this column do not necessarily represent those of the Publisher.

This active-aging expert offers an unflinching look at current senior living models and invites an industry-wide conversation about where we go from here.

by Kay Van Norman, MS

Senior living products and services have evolved steadily over the past 20 years. Medical model nursing homes are giving way to person-centered approaches and models such as the Eden Alternative. Assisted living and continuing care retirement communities (CCRCs) have beautiful spaces, lovely grounds and excellent food served restaurant style. Whole-person wellness has emerged as a gold standard for quality programming, and senior living professionals are dedicated to improving resident quality of life (Edelman & Montague, 2006). However, in spite of everything, the majority of current residents are not engaged in offerings, and many frail older adults fight with every ounce of determination not to move into senior living communities.

This article invites you to take an unflinching look at where we are and contemplate where we go from here. It’s an opportunity to evaluate if current senior living models will support or restrict continued growth and innovation; and discuss, what if.

What if we reevaluated the senior living priorities presented in marketing materials? What if we took age out of the equation and compared services offered young people with disabilities to services provided frail adults with “age-related” disabilities? What if we consciously and consistently integrated research on quality-of-life indicators into applied operations? And what if instead of creating lots of activities to support meaning and purpose, we created purpose-driven senior living communities?

Priorities disconnect

Let’s consider how senior living is commonly portrayed to community-dwelling older adults. Assisted living and CCRC marketing materials highlight what companies believe are the priorities of potential clients:

  • safety
  • security
  • closeness to healthcare
  • help with activities of daily living (ADLs)
  • home-like environment
  • activities
  • low stress
  • lack of responsibility
  • Unfortunately, they also expose underlying negative attitudes and expectations about aging.

    For instance, boasting of proximity to healthcare and hospitals exposes the expectation that residents will likely have a health crisis at any moment, so—because of age—should be close to doctors and a hospital. Another common message? Have staff take care of everything so residents have plenty of time for leisure. This message reinforces the concept of “retirement” as a time for rest, relaxation and fun activity; it also suggests that no one expects older adults to contribute to the daily business of life. In fact, a Webster’s dictionary published in 1972 defines “retire” as “to withdraw, retreat, or recede.” A large percentage of older adults, especially Baby Boomers, value something different (Edelman & Montague, 2006).

    Marketing efforts that use fear as a motivator are especially problematic. One showed a worried-looking couple in front of their house while listing all the reasons they should move:

  • They weren’t capable of maintaining the steep roof and big yard.
  • How could they get to the doctor through heavy traffic?
  • Old neighbors had moved, and none of these “young” neighbors looked out for them.
  • Wow! I know connecting emotionally is effective, but a fear-based approach reinforces negative stereotypes and gives the impression that moving to senior living is “giving up.”

    Regardless of marketing strategies, we need to examine if the priorities we present in marketing are the same priorities potential clients hold dear. We have to be willing to ask the hard questions. For example:

  • If these are the real priorities of our potential customers, why do so many people resist moving into senior living?
  • Why don’t more current residents regularly engage in offerings?
  • Would older adults embrace completely new senior living options if they existed?
  • Smith and Mullen (2007) compared awareness of and attitudes towards independent living, assisted living, CCRC and active adult communities between 1998 and 2007. Results showed a significant increase in the awareness and usage of all types of age-qualified properties, while thedesirability of these properties as a place to live remained the same or decreased. Most declines in the appeal of senior housing occurred in households 70-plus years of age. The appeal of independent living communities went from 64% to 55% among households aged 70–74, and from 65% to 55% among households aged 75-plus. The appeal of assisted living also decreased, from 60% to 50% for ages 70–74 and from 61% to 52% for ages 75-plus.

    If senior living priorities matched consumers’ priorities, shouldn’t senior living—with all its innovations—be more, rather than less, appealing? Smith and Mullen concluded that mature consumers may still think of these properties as a place where they might “need to move,” instead of “want to move.” To improve the desirability of senior housing, the researchers continued, advertising and word of mouth should be used to elicit attitudinal changes. Perhaps a better strategy is to consider changing the product to more closely match potential clients’ needs and priorities.

    Consider different priorities

    Age demographics will drive growth in senior living, but there is an opportunity for so much more. What would it take for potential clients to want to move in, rather than wait until they “have to”? What makes living in their own home, even if they’re having difficulties, preferable to living in a CCRC or assisted living community? What are they afraid of losing if they move from their home?

    I don’t know the answers yet, but believe the right questions are being asked in behavioral and quality-of-life research. Unfortunately, little of this research is disseminated to senior living practitioners and even less is integrated into daily operations. We know how to meet basic needs for shelter, food, safety and personal care. Understanding how to meet other basic human needs is less obvious—the need to love and be loved, give as well as receive, be of value to others, and have feelings of competence and control.

    Clues are embedded in research exploring resiliency, self-efficacy, self-esteem, self-responsibility and optimism. These personal assets help people overcome obstacles and find life satisfaction, regardless of circumstances. Senior living professionals can use behavioral and quality-of-life research to develop strategies and policies that consciously and consistently support these assets. (See below for a listing of resources and references.)

    Asking more hard questions

    We also have to start asking ourselves uncomfortable questions about the opportunities we provide residents. Why, even in program-rich environments, do only 20–30% of residents regularly participate in offerings? Are we providing what we can—what is logical based on expectations—or what potential residents really need and want? Do we unintentionally limit opportunities based on what we think residents are capable of?

    For example, compare differences between independent living and assisted living programming. Before you identify things that residents with significant physical and cognitive limitations simply cannot do, however, I want you to contemplate something: Thirty years ago people with profound disabilities were housed in facilities where they were sheltered, fed, clothed, and provided personal care; there were no expectations, few opportunities, and no hope for anything different. The disability movement dramatically changed attitudes, expectations and environments. Gradually people with even profound disabilities began accomplishing amazing things, revealing the tragic waste of human potential imposed by low expectations.They demonstrated how individuals could overcome seemingly insurmountable barriers when immersed in an environment of encouragement, positive expectations, adaptive strategies, support, and most of all hope. (For a snapshot of what is possible, read “Kyle Maynard: rising to the occasion.”)

    Senior living has worked hard to provide opportunities. But, back to the uncomfortable questions, how do our attitudes, expectations and environments impact resident interest and engagement? What role do they play in outcomes? Which aspects of the physical and emotional environments of senior living communities support feelings of value, competence and control? Which ones don’t? What specific operational strategies are consciously and consistently applied to build the personal assets of self-efficacy, resiliency, self-esteem, self-responsibility and optimism?

    Learning from the disability movement

    It’s interesting to compare the level of opportunities and services offered to youth with disabilities versus older adults. For example, a major goal of disability policy is to ensure the inclusion of people with disabilities in the mainstream of society. Another is for people with disabilities to be treated as first-class citizens (Batavia & Schriner, 2001). However, most disability legislation has an age cutoff of 65. The inability to perform ADLs or IADLs (instrumental activities of daily living) poses certain challenges no matter the person’s age, yet someone who becomes disabled after age 65 will not receive the same services as another with the exact same disabilities who becomes disabled before that age (Jonosn & Larsson, 2009).

    Why are young people with disabilities given encouragement, resources and opportunities to overcome and live fully in spite of disabilities, while older people are primarily given strategies to cope? There is a profound difference between outcomes derived from a mindset of coping with disabilities verses a determination to live fully regardless of disabilities.

    In Sweden, for instance, traveling for a weekend outing is considered a “normal” activity for a young person, so disabled young people are afforded a personal attendant to allow them to travel just like anyone else. Frail older adults, often with similar disabilities, are not afforded that opportunity, according to Jonosn and Larsson (2009). Disability legislation discounts age-related disabilities as “normal aging,” and literature suggests that the “situation is justified by healthcare and service personnel who refer to older people as being content with staying in nursing homes,” the researchers add. Ouch! This is a concrete example of how negative attitudes and expectations of aging shape behaviors, interactions and outcomes.


    The disability movement strives to provide individuals with what they need to help them contribute to the community and be self-sufficient and self-responsible to the greatest extent possible.Why then should older adults with functional limitations be placed in environments where they are no longer expected to contribute to the greater community?

    I know the frustrations; many residents resist doing anything. But how much does ageism impact personal expectations, expectations of others, and the created environments? One thing I know for sure is that without feelings of value, competence and mastery, without meaning and purpose, what is wrong becomes bigger than what is right and what a person cannot do becomes bigger than what a person can. (See “Nora Belle” for a personal account about the power of purpose.)

    What would senior living be like if we shifted our mindset from “taking care” of residents to creating the optimal environment for continued growth and contribution, regardless of age or functional restrictions? What if, from the first moment of project conception, discussions about the look of the project were secondary to deciding how to develop the property to support residents’ needs to give as well as receive, be of value to others, stay connected and engaged, and feel competent and in control of their own lives? How would the building and site be designed, operations developed, and marketing created if we prioritized support for self-efficacy, self-responsibility, self-esteem, optimism and resiliency? What if we created purpose-driven communities? (For some “what ifs” to consider about purpose-driven communities, see the sidebar below.)

    Purpose-driven communities: some ‘what ifs’ to consider

    Creating purpose-driven communities would require us to rethink the optimal locations for senior living. Instead of boasting about closeness to hospitals and doctors, we could look for locations that offer opportunities to contribute to the greater community.

  • What if communities were built next to an animal shelter, recycling center, elementary school, boys and girls club, or food bank? Residents would realize from their first contact with the senior living community that they were viewed as important assets to the greater community. They could envision how each individual’s contribution could be vital to the success of community programs.
  • What if instead of perfectly manicured lawns, the grounds boasted organic gardens, where residents and staff grew organic vegetables for the local schools, day care centers, food banks and hospitals (plus their own meals)?
  • What if a community was designed around residents developing and maintained a living history farm, demonstrating techniques used by homesteaders to make a living and raise a family? What a terrific educational asset to community schools!
  • What if residents maintained a working organic farm with cows, chickens and gardens to provide the community with organic products, as well as to demonstrate "green" concepts in action?
  • Existing senior living communities can also create strategic partnerships with the greater community.
  • What if the senior living "café" was known in the community for the best lunches in town and also encouraged local artists to hang artwork and local talent to perform?
  • What if residents and staff identified a cause to support with their effort, expertise and time–the environment, education, political causes, children’s causes, animal causes, world hunger?
  • Every school has fundraisers to support sports, academic or special interest programs. What if a senior living community "adopted" a school program or programs and helped them with fundraisers?
  • Compelling reasons to change

    The senior living industry has been steadily changing. Now it’s time for a major revolution. We’ve created nice models and a wide range of excellent activities to entice resident participation, but it’s important to acknowledge that being occupied is not the same as being engaged. Clearly, something is missing when a large percentage of our customers don’t consider our product desirable.

    We need to support our residents’ ability to give as well as receive, be of value to others, and feel competent and in control of their lives. It’s also time to observe and learn how the disability movement helps individuals live fully, even with profound disabilities. We need to evaluate which of our approaches and policies support and which ones diminish the personal assets necessary for people to live well in spite of challenges.

    It’s difficult to change an entire mindset and the momentum of established approaches, but the reasons for evolving are compelling. Shame and regret accompany our look back on the journey of disabled people in our society. We now possess the insight to prevent such negative attitudes and expectations from confining frail older adults. In addition, a tremendous opportunity for innovation exists right now. Baby Boomers cut their teeth on the concept of supporting “causes.” They’ve marched against injustice, invested in socially responsible companies, purchased “green” products, and advocated for civic responsibility. These consumers will be drawn to senior living communities that value residents as assets to the greater community. Purpose-driven goals will merge with whole-person wellness programs to ensure residents have choices between activity/engagement for personal growth and entertainment, and activity/engagement for a greater purpose.

    So I invite you to open your minds and consider the possibilities. Read behavior and life satisfaction research and realign priorities. Look into programs for young people with mental and physical disabilities to learn how they facilitate living fully with disabilities. Seek opportunities to really partner with programs in the greater community. Envision innovations as a developer, executive director, marketing director or programs coordinator, and consider what this new paradigm would mean for designs and development, operations, employee training and marketing.

    Real change will require a fundamental shift in organizational missions, goals and strategies. But we need to start with a sincere and open-minded industry-wide conversation. Is your organization up to the challenge?


    Batavia, A., & Schriner, K. (2001). The Americans with Disabilities Act as Engine of Social Change: Models of Disability and the Potential of a Civil Rights Approach. Policy Studies Journal, 29(4), 690.

    Chappell, Jr, J. A: (1994). The whole is greater than the sum of its parts. American Rehabilitation, 20(1), 23.

    Edelman, P., & Montague, J. (2006). Whole-Person Wellness Outcomes in Senior Living Communities: The Resident Whole-Person Wellness Survey. Senior Housing and Care Journal, 14(1), 21–33.

    Guillory, M. D., & Moschis, G. (2008). Marketing Apartments, Townhouses, and Condominiums to Seniors. Seniors Housing and Care Journal, 16(1), 39–51.

    Jonosn, H., & Larsson, A. (2009). The exclusion of older people in disability activism and policies: A case of inadvertent ageism? Journal of Aging Studies, 23(1), 69–77.

    Shapiro, A., & Taylor, M. (2002). Effects of a community-based early intervention program on the subjective well-being, institutionalization, and mortality of low-income elders. Gerontologist, 42(3), 334.

    Smith, E. R., & Mullen, A. J. (2007). Trends in Awareness, Attitudes, and Usage of Retirement and Age-Qualified Properties: Findings from a National Survey of Households 60 Years of Age and Older. Seniors Housing and Care Journal, 15(1), 19–29.

    Ten research resources for suggested reading

    1. Bandura, A. (1997). Self efficacy: The exercise and control. New York NY: Freeman.
    2. Benjamin, K., Edwards, N. C., & Bharti, V. K. (2005). Attitudinal, perceptual and normative beliefs influencing the exercise decisions of community-dwelling physically frail seniors. Journal of Aging and Physical Activity, 13, 276–293.
    3. Bradley, D. E., & Longino, C. F. (2001). How older people think about images of aging in advertising and the media. Generations, Journal of the American Society on Aging, 3, 17–21.
    4. Coalman, M. (2007). Positive psychology: a new way to support wellness in older adults? Journal on Active Aging, 6(4), 51–55.
    5. Cohen, G. D. (2005). The mature mind. The positive power of the aging brain. New York NY: Basic Books.
    6. Edelman, P., & Montague, J. (2006). Whole-Person Wellness Outcomes in Senior Living Communities: The Resident Whole-Person Wellness Survey. Senior Housing and Care Journal, 14(1), 21–33.
    7. Maynard, K. (2005). No excuses. The true story of a congenital amputee who became a champion in wrestling and in life. Washington DC: Regnery Publishing.
    8. Ray, O. (2004). How the mind hurts and heals the body. American Psychologist, 59(1), 29–40.
    9. Semerjian, T., & Stephens, D. (2007). Comparison style, physical self-perceptions, and fitness among older women. Journal of Aging and Physical Activity, 15, 219–235.
    10. Wise, J. B., & Trunnell, E. P. (2001). The influence of sources of self-efficacy upon efficacy strength. Journal of Sport and Exercise Psychology, 23, 268–280.

    Alcohol, Aging and Cancer

    Tuesday, June 15th, 2010 by American Senior Fitness Association   View This Issue of Experience!

    Senior health-fitness professionals should have a basic understanding of the role telomeres play in the aging process. Telomeres are repeated sequences of DNA that are present at the ends of chromosomes and serve to protect them from damage. With aging, telomeres shorten, rendering them more vulnerable to injury and death. Therefore, telomere length can be viewed as one marker of the rate of biological aging. Telomeres are involved in the maintenance of cells in the immune system. Thus, the shortening of telomeres may indicate an increased risk for disease.

    SFA has reported on the topic of telomeres in previous Experience! articles. For important background information, click on Work Out to Stay Biologically Younger: The Science of Telomeres and Lifestyle Factors and Telomerase: Enzyme Study.

    Now comes new research, recently presented at the annual meeting of the American Association for Cancer Research (AACR), suggesting that excessive alcohol consumption may increase the risk for cancer in older adults due to telomere shortening. Scientists at the University of Milan analyzed the DNA of 59 individuals who abused alcohol (with 22 percent drinking four or more alcoholic beverages a day) and 197 people with variable alcohol consumption habits. The researchers wanted to learn whether or not heavy drinking shortens telomeres. The two groups were similar regarding other variables that might affect telomere length, for example:

  • Age,
  • Diet,
  • Physical exercise levels,
  • Job-related stress, and
  • Environmental exposures.
  • The results showed that telomere length was dramatically shortened in persons who used heavy amounts of alcohol. Indeed, their telomere length was almost half that of non-abusers.

    Lead researcher Andrea Baccarelli, MD, PhD, said, "Heavy alcohol users tend to look haggard, and it is commonly thought heavy drinking leads to premature aging and earlier onset of diseases of aging. In particular, heavy alcohol drinking has been associated with cancer at multiple sites."

    "The decrease we found in telomere length is very sharp," she said, "and we were surprised to find such a strong effect at the cellular level."

    To see the AACR news release on this study, click here.


    What Is “Old Age”?

    Tuesday, June 1st, 2010 by American Senior Fitness Association   View This Issue of Experience!

    When exactly does old age begin? Health care workers, fitness professionals, and laypersons alike might wish to nail down the answer, but it isn’t as simple as counting birthdays. Whereas many older adults may begin referring to themselves as "seniors" as they reach retirement age, their medical status, physical fitness level, psychological health, and social characteristics vary widely from one individual to the next.

    This special issue of Experience! delves into the perplexing matter of defining old age. All of the books listed in the discussion below are published by Human Kinetics. The sources named are experts and their works are recommended by the American Senior Fitness Association (SFA)


    Take One – Chronological, Biological and Functional Age

    Tuesday, June 1st, 2010 by American Senior Fitness Association   View This Issue of Experience!

    One respected publication that addresses this complex question is the textbook Physical Activity Instruction of Older Adults (2005) in which SFA president Janie Clark wrote the chapter "Designing and Managing Group Conditioning Classes." In a chapter entitled "The Field of Gerokinesiology," co-editors C. Jessie Jones and Debra J. Rose explain the limited nature of relying solely on chronological years to describe old age (for example: young-old 65-74; middle-old 75-84; old-old 85-99; and oldest-old 100-plus). There is simply too much diversity within numerical age categories to form definitive profiles. Jones and Rose then discuss several other indicators of aging, including two we will briefly outline here: biological aging and functional age.

    Also called primary aging, biological aging concerns a number of processes in the human body that, over time, result in reduced adaptability, disease, physical and functional declines, disability, and ultimately death. Numerous theories of biological aging — for example: genetic theories which emphasize heredity; damage theories which stress the long-term build-up of cell damage; and other theories — are presently under scientific investigation and debate.

    Functional age refers to an individual’s functional fitness level, compared to others of his or her same chronological age and sex (for example: how much and what types of physical activity can one successfully perform? what is the status of one’s cardiovascular system? one’s musculoskeletal system? what are an individual’s capacities and/or limitations in terms of carrying out activities of daily living?). As a good example of gauging functional fitness, Jones and Rose cite influential researcher Waneen W. Spirduso’s well-known Hierarchy of Physical Function. Her publication Physical Dimensions of Aging (1995) separates physical function into five categories in descending order: physically elite; physically fit; physically independent; physically frail; and physically dependent. A second edition of Physical Dimensions of Aging was published in 2005.


    Take Two – Psychological and Social Age

    Tuesday, June 1st, 2010 by American Senior Fitness Association   View This Issue of Experience!

    Another excellent resource on the topic is Exercise for Older Adults: ACE’s Guide for Fitness Professionals (second edition, 2005) in which Janie Clark wrote the chapter "Older Adult Exercise Techniques." Edited by Cedric X. Bryant and Daniel J. Green of the American Council on Exercise, this book includes an especially pertinent chapter entitled "Physiology of Aging and Exercise" written by Wojtek J. Chodzko-Zajko. It explores the ideas discussed above and provides particularly interesting sections on psychological age and social age.

    Psychological age refers to a person’s mental or cognitive functioning and includes factors such as memory, learning, and self-esteem. Ongoing research suggests that while some older individuals exhibit the psychological adjustments characteristic of their chronological age, others act psychologically younger or older than their peers.

    Social age has to do with the concept that society imposes a strong influence on what is perceived to be appropriate or inappropriate behaviors for persons within specific chronological age groups. As an example, Chodzko-Zajko notes that some older adults view public physical activity as undignified, while others embrace it. Contemporary researchers want to know whether society’s expectations might be conditioning people to become less active with age and, therefore, less healthy. The World Health Organization supports a more dynamic approach to aging in which older adults are encouraged to demonstrate higher levels of activity.